Dioxin Exposure

Photomed Laser Surg. 2006 Jun;24(3):410-3.

Brief report: embryonic growth and hatching implications of developmental 670-nm phototherapy and dioxin co-exposure.

Yeager RL, Franzosa JA, Millsap DS, Lim J, Hansen CM, Jasevicius AV, Heise SS, Wakhungu P, Whelan HT, Eells JT, Henshel DS.

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA. rlyeager@indiana.edu

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of 670-nm light therapy on growth and hatching kinetics in chickens (Gallus gallus) exposed to dioxin.

BACKGROUND DATA: Photobiomodulation has been shown to stimulate signaling pathways resulting in improved energy metabolism, antioxidant production, and cell survival. In ovo treatment with 670-nm light-emitting diode (LED) arrays improves hatching success and increases hatchling size in control chickens. Under conditions where developmental dioxin exposure is above the lethality threshold (100 ppt), phototherapy attenuates dioxin-induced early embryonic death. We hypothesized that 670-nm LED therapy would attenuate dioxin-induced developmental anomalies and increase hatching success.

METHODS: Fertile chicken eggs were injected with control oil, 2, 20, or 200 ppt dioxin, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) prior to the start of incubation. Half of the eggs in each dose group were treated once per day from embryonic days 0-20 with 670-nm LED light at a fluence of 4 J/cm2. Hatchling size, organ weights, and energy parameters were compared between dose groups and LED treatment.

RESULTS: LED therapy resulted in earlier pip times (small hole created 12-24 h prior to hatch), and increased hatchling size and weight in the 200 ppt dose groups. However, there appears to be an LED-oil interaction within the oil-treated controls that results in longer hatch times and decreased liver weight within the LED control dose groups in comparison to the non-LED control dose groups.

CONCLUSION: Size and hatching times suggest that the hatching success and preparedness of chicks developmentally exposed to dioxin concentrations above the lethality threshold is improved by 670-nm LED treatment administered throughout the gestation period, but the relationship may be complicated by an LED-oil interaction.

Photomed Laser Surg. 2006 Feb;24(1):29-32.

Survivorship and mortality implications of developmental 670-nm phototherapy: dioxin co-exposure.

Yeager RL, Franzosa JA, Millsap DS, Lim J, Heise SS, Wakhungu P, Whelan HT, Eells JT, Henshel DS.

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University-Bloomington, 341 SPEA Building, 1315 East Tenth Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. rlyeager@indiana.edu

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of 670-nm light therapy on dioxin-induced embryonic mortality in chickens (Gallus gallus). BACKGROUND DATA: Developmental photobiomodulation using 670-nm light-emitting diode (LED) arrays improves hatching success and increases body size in hatchling chickens. Photobiomodulation also stimulates signaling pathways resulting in improved energy metabolism, antioxidant production and cell survival. Dioxin causes embryonic mortality, including increases in the frequency of chicken embryos that pip but can’t go to hatch. We hypothesized that 670-nm LED therapy would attenuate dioxin-induced embryo mortality. METHODS: Fertile chicken eggs were injected with control or 2, 20, or 200 ppt 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin) prior to the start of incubation. Half of the eggs in each dose group were treated once per day from embryonic days 0-20 with 670-nm LED light at a fluence of 4 J/cm(2). In ovo survival and hatching success were compared between dose groups and LED treatment. RESULTS: LED therapy decreased the embryonic mortality rate by 41%, resulting in increased embryonic survival and improved hatching success in eggs exposed to 200 ppt dioxin. However, at sub-lethal dioxin concentrations and in oil-treated controls, LED therapy slightly increased mortality. CONCLUSION: Overall survivorship and hatching success of chicks developmentally exposed to dioxin concentrations above the lethality threshold (>100 ppt TCDD) is improved by 670-nm LED treatment administered throughout the gestation period, but the relationship may be complicated by an LED-oil interaction.